Modulus of elasticity. The determination of the modulus of elasticity for cylindrical concrete samples such as molded cylinders and drilled cores is outlined in this procedure. • Sandstone has lower value modulus, which may … If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The three moduli of rigidity denoted by GLR, GLT, and GRT are the elastic constants in the LR, LT, and RT planes, respectively. hތS�n�0�>���E�$K�k�Y[ ȃ�h�1_[ҿ%�֗ֆ̣CJ�5����M�cY�bH�,���%��W��St���]���������]�1b�fV��7g��W���(=kr7�N\�w��V(���f�O�BQHW*��~����q �]գ��=0���������SX��O����p��ߢV`�R2u�o�,����\7�j2�\у�d�6a2iO�M)�����r��sW��������]'*��D���a�'mW�*Q�Cb�2���)*����O�����QXWBۑ��^%u�&�6��%�5�vW6y.�qӗ�����0ݻ�G��%��9���r���蓔��|��Z0��WX�F����. The value of modulus of elasticity of wet specimen is found higher from 3 to 4 GPa (3.2 to 4.3 x 10 4 kg/cm 2) than dry specimen i.e., the modulus of elasticity of wet concrete is higher by 16.3% to 7.5 according to its compressive strength. This is the elasticity we can feel. 3d elasticity. However upto about 10 to 15% of the ultimate strength of concrete, the stress-strain curve is not much curved and more accurate values of modulus of elasticity may be obtained. The deformation modulus is Young’s modulus (E) for a rock mass (E rm) or a soil mass; it is the ratio of principal stress in one direction (σ x) to corresponding strain in the elastic range in the same direction (ε x).It is not easily measured, so estimation methods based on geophysical measurements or rock mass classification schemes tend to be used. Modulus of elasticity. 2.1. On 25th December 2020 By . One, that in the same material, the modulus of elasticity won't vary a lot depending on alloying, but the strength will. Elasticity modulus as function of compressive strength—experimental results and empirical law prediction. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Materials Required. ADVERTISEMENT. 15. Steel is much stiffer than rubber. To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and … 1876 0 obj <>stream Young’sModulus 2. � bp"pX��& B.�-W��$�@,�r�`=� (B͈Fj$s���b1pJ2g���Ǿ���$�Ke$�:g��Yc�(޽��q ���H�K``^� H320p$�"^����W iA��_��\��b� Q�( And so some key takeaways from the lecture, the modulus of elasticity and this class will be the notation for it will be a capital E. The slope of the linear elastic region of the stress-strain curve is the modulus of elasticity. Viscoelasticity wikipedia. With modulus of elasticity, it can really be thought of as a non-geometric stiffness, and it is the slope of the stress-strain curve. The modulus of elasticity (= Young’s modulus) E is a material property, that describes its stiffness and is therefore one of the most important properties of solid materials. Elastic potential energy/ work done in a stretched spring aqa 2018. Materials.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. The stress of a material is the deforming force per unit area. • For granites and limestone the modulus of elasticity in compression is in the range 2,000,000 – 7,000,000 psi. Created: Apr 20, 2020 | Updated: Sep 15, 2020 This is a 7 slide PowerPoint that covers BTec National Engineering (A-Level equivalent) on the topic of Tensile and Compressive forces which create stress and strain. It has been observed that even under short term loading concrete does not behave as an elastic material. L L 7 -4 6.37 x 10 Pa 3.08 x 10 Stress Modulus Strain Modulus = 207 x 109 Pa This longitudinal modulus of elasticity is called Young’s Modulus and is denoted by the symbol Y. Benjie Cho and Mulugojam Alemu. The resilient modulus (MR) is used to define the subgrade soil stiffness, and is one of the most important material inputs for the Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E) pavement design method. 2.2 Experimental arrangement. Undergraduate Civil Engineering. This can be repeated many times with no apparent degradation to the rubber. According to my limited knowledge from working on a long-span bridge project, modulus of elasticity of soil changes with depth (let say per one metre depth), either for cohesive or non-cohesive soil. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. Rubber elasticity refers to a property of crosslinked rubber: it can be stretched by up to a factor of 10 from its original length and, when released, returns very nearly to its original length. Modulus of elasticity = unit stress/unit strain. • YIELD STRENGTH: The point at which a consistent and measurable amount of … Modulus of Rigidity The modulus of rigidity, also called shear modulus, indi-cates the resistance to deflection of a member caused by shear stresses. 1. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. ... Ep = = Use the modulus sign ([xx]) to remove the (–ve) sign if the answer is (-ve) •We know from the Law of Demand that price … Gcse science physics (9-1) forces and elasticity youtube. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson Ratio of Concrete - Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson Ratio of Concrete. Elastic properties. Modulus. Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers 541 For the photosensitive optical fiber without the coating the average value obtained for the EG×A product was 841.30±15.06 N and the aver age rupture limit was 7.57±2.51 N. Considering the area of each optical fiber ty pe, the Young modulus can be obtained through PRAVEEN VAIDYA After preparing the ends and installing a compressometer, a series of compressive stress cycles up to approximately 40 percent of the measured compressive strength will be applied. This will be discussed in detail in Section 2.5. Spring thread. Created: Apr 20, 2020 | Updated: May 14, 2020 This is a 7 slide PowerPoint that covers BTec National Engineering (A-Level equivalent) on the topic of Tensile and Compressive forces which create stress and strain. K m no. Sadd, Elsevier/Academic Press, 2009 Theory of Elasticity Based Upon Principles of Continuum Mechanics, Elasticity Theory Formulates Stress Analysis Problem As Mathematical Boundary-Value Problem for Solution of Stress, Strain and Displacement Distribution in an Elastic Body. %%EOF Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint.com, find free presentations research about Shear And Bulk Modulus Of Elasticity PPT … We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Modulus Of Elasticity And Poisson Ratio Of Concrete PPT. Young’s Modulus for Composites for Isostrain Conditions Derive an equation relating the elastic modulus of a layered composite of unidirectional fibers and a plastic matrix that is loaded under isostrain conditions. Presentation Summary : Find values for the Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio from the data. 26 Each resin composite was inserted in a mould and light-cured at 850 mW/cm 2 (Optilux 501 Curing Light, Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA, USA) for 20 s per site at 5 overlapping sites, from both the top and bottom surfaces. Now considering 3 different types of stress for solid, we have 3 different sets of elasticity modulus. 2 1 1 2 2(1) o dd n fR E f p ur =+ where E d = dynamic modulus of elasticity, Pa, ? Searle’s apparatus; Two long steel wires of same length and diameter; A metre scale; A screw gauge; Eight 0.5 kg slotted weights; 1 kg hanger; Theory. %PDF-1.5 %���� For the Love’s correction method, the fundamental longitudinal resonance frequency (f) of a So, when you start going through and trying to pick materials for engineering design, you're going to notice some interesting things. 2020. Nonlinear elasticity. An IMT‐HTP‐100F servo‐controlled high‐temperature test machine, developed by the authors, was used to measure the elastic modulus of the mudstone. Preview. 7. Young’s Modulus of Elasticity It is the ratio of longitudinal stress to linear strain. 0 Higher value 16.3% is observed for lower strength i.e., 21 MPa and 7.5% increase for 70 MPa strength, while the strength of wet concrete is found less than dry concrete. endstream endobj 1852 0 obj <>/Metadata 115 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[1869 0 R]>>/Outlines 161 0 R/PageLabels 1843 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/Pages 1845 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/StructTreeRoot 238 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 1853 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 90/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 1854 0 obj <>stream Mechanical deformation puts energy into a material. Elasticpotentialenergy. • Modulus of elasticity: The initial slope of the curve, related directly to the strength of the atomic bonds. Provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded, an elastic deformation (strain) (strain) is directly proportional . Fsx downloads concorde Free downloadable crosswords Zip download pc … or Therefore, Longitudinal stress or tensile stress is applied along the length and hence causes change in length. Depending upon the three of strain, there are three types of elastic moduli, viz. Standardization on Shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE) technical settings will not only ensure that the results are accurate, but also detect any differences over time that may be attributed to true physiological changes. Ppt | elasticity (physics) | potential energy. a) Young’s Modulus(Y) or modulus corresponding to longitudinal strain b) Bulk modulus(K) or modulus corresponding to the volume strain c) Rigidity modulus(N) or modulus … Ratio of shear stress and strain. Univ.. of Southern California. They are (a) Young’s Modulus (2) Shear Modulus (3) Bulk modulus Geodynamics5.ppt 6 • We can predict the response of the lithosphere to changes in state – e.g., stretching, collisional thickening, foreland basin • Establish a reference. Flexural strength (bending strength or modulus of rupture)—Force per unit area at the instant of fracture in a test specimen subjected to flexural loading. BTec National - Direct Stress, Strain and Modulus of Elasticity (PowerPoint) (no rating) 0 customer reviews. TYPES OF MODULI OF ELASTICITY. SDMCET, DHARWAD (India) In this booster, you will learnHow to calculate Modulus of Elasticity of concrete? 1 lectures accompanying the book: solid state physics: an. Elastic. Theory of the elastic properties of rubber: the journal of chemical. Elastic properties. Study of Elastic Modulus and Yield Strength of Polymer Thin Films Using Atomic Force Microscopy. Introducing nonlinear elastic materials | comsol blog. For isotropic materials it is the relationship among elastic parameters, modulus of elasticity, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio. Elastic modulus (also modulus of elasticity and Young’s modulus)—Stiffness of a material that is calculated as the ratio of elastic stress to elastic strain. a) Young’s Modulus(Y) or modulus corresponding to longitudinal strain b) Bulk modulus(K) or modulus corresponding to the volume strain c) Rigidity modulus(N) or modulus … From this equation, it can be seen that the elastic constant, G, more known as the elastic modulus, is related to N. In equations 2.56 and 2.57, N values, or the number of chains per unit volume, which is itself determined by … Basic Elasticity and viscoelasticity In the physically stressful environment there are three ways in which a material can respond to external forces. High modulus of elasticity for high rise structures | giatec scientific. Force extension and elastic potential energy calculations physics. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. The results show that the empirical relation predicts the modulus of elasticity of the control SCC well but it can be concluded that SCC incorporating rubber aggregates does not follow the rules governing the compressive behaviour of ordinary cement-based concrete. Binyang Du, Ophelia K. C. Tsui, Qingling Zhang, and ; Tianbai He; View Author Information. proportional to the magnitude of the applied force per unit area (stress). In the United States customary units, it is often expressed as pounds (force) per square inch (psi). Modulus of Rigidity - G - (Shear Modulus) is the coefficient of elasticity for a shearing force.It is defined as "the ratio of shear stress to the displacement per unit sample length (shear strain)" Modulus of Rigidity can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve created during tensile tests conducted on a sample of the material. The modulus of elasticity so obtained from actual loading is called static modulus of elasticity. Elasticity (and other useful things to know). For example, GLR is the modulus With the observation cycle completed per Article 5.8, the two cycles required per this article are for data collection and calculation of modulus of elasticity. 1 general theory of elastic wave scattering. Seismology I - Elasticity Elasticity Theory A time-dependent perturbation of an elastic medium (e.g. Young's modulus. 1868 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<2E712CCA34E932E9E83FB9823B0CA904><1CCEC8C7DFA31249960487BAC3E7E74E>]/Index[1851 26]/Info 1850 0 R/Length 85/Prev 263560/Root 1852 0 R/Size 1877/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream stress Modulus of Elasticity strain Modulus of elasticity is the prime feature in the calculation of the deformation response of concrete when stress is applied. modulus of elasticity of steel. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Young’s modulus 1. In this article, let us learn about modulus of elasticity along with examples. Determination of the elastic modulus of nanostructures with sizes at several nm range is a challenge. ELASTICITY Modulus of elasticity is the measure of the stress–strain relationship on the object. Hooke's law and modulus of elasticity ( ) ppt video online download. RETURN TO ISSUE PREV Research Article NEXT. The slope of the linear portion of the curve describes the modulus of ; the specimen. Author: Created by flushflop. (c) Representative force, P, versus change in displacement, Δx, experimental result for a typical buckling experiment.The red dashed lines show the tangent intersection approach used to determine the critical buckling load, P cr. With the compressive strength test on the concrete specimen (cylinder of 15 cm diameter and 30 cm length having a volume 15 cm cube), the modulus of elasticity of concrete is calculated with the help of stress and strain graph. Reference: Elasticity Theory Applications and Numerics, M.H. So the modulus of elasticity for steel is much higher than that of rubber. Continents: 150 km lithosphere comprising 35 km-thick crust – has elevation of about 400 m (average continental elevation worldwide). h�bbd``b`� ��@�i������w �$�� $�ׁXw@�.��>1$� $��@�i@�x!#�) ���7����_ \�* The present study evaluated the variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon using SWUE when different technical aspects were altered. chapter 3 Elasticity.ppt - CHAPTER 3 Elasticity and Its Application 1 Elasticity of demand Price elasticity of demand \u2022 Measurement and. ... Elastic limit for springs If a spring is stretched far enough, ... the Young modulus (modulus of elasticity) of the material. 12. Modulus of. However, these cycles should be performed in the … A steel bar 100 mm long and having a square cross section 20 mm on an edge is pulled in tension with a load of 89,000 N, and experiences an elongation of 0.10 mm. to record the linear-elastic response of each concre te sample. 21. Home. The amorphous Al 2 O 3 was in the form of a shell, wrapped around GaAs nanowires, thereby forming an effective core/shell structure. TYPES OF MODULI OF ELASTICITY. Young's modulus, also known as the tensile modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of an elastic material and is a quantity used to characterize materials. ENGINEERING PHYSICS. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson Ratio of Concrete" is the property of its rightful owner. Hook's law, stress strain graph, torsional pendulum, bending of beam etc. Thus, stress ∝ strain stress = M × strain where M = proportionality constant called as modulus of elasticity. Ppt | elasticity (physics) | deformation (mechanics). The Modulus of the elasticity is the ratio of stress to corresponding strain below the proportional limit. Depending upon the three of strain, there are three types of elastic moduli, viz. Change in length. Youngs modulus (E) slope of stress-strain curve with sample in tension (aka Elastic modulus). Modulus of elasticity is the measure of the stress–strain relationship on the object. This K is a proportionality constant called Modulus of Elasticity. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Modulus of Elasticity, G: (also known as Young's modulus) • Hooke's Law: σ = E ε σ Linear- elastic E ε F F simple tension test E: stiffness (material’s resistance to elastic deformation) 9. Ppt. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Physics 207: lecture 2 notes. Modulus of elasticity. Units of Modulus of Elasticity/Young’s modulus are: Nm-2 or Pa. Modulus of elasticity (Young modulus) is a number that describes the ratio of stress to strain in an object that is being deformed by a force that is perpendicular to a surface of an object. Elastic constants are those constants which determine the deformation produced by a given stress system acting on the material. 4. These two quantities are related by the following equation that defines the modulus of elasticity: stress = modulus x strain Aug 18, 2016. Young's modulus by single cantilever method, Fundamenals of magnetism and applications. The energy is … Rubber elasticity refers to a property of crosslinked rubber: it can be stretched by up to a factor of 10 from its original length and, when released, returns very nearly to its original length. Alternatively, elastic constants K (bulk modulus) and/or G (shear modulus) can also be used. Elastic. The modulus of elasticity of the resin composites was calculated from three-point flexural strength tests performed according to ISO 4049. It can add the load directly onto the forces that hold ... Young’s modulus is a measure of stiffness in simple extension or compression. Calculate the theoretical values the Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio. 1. PDF | On Aug 31, 2019, Wélida de Sousa Sarro and others published Soil Elastic Modulus Determined by Ultrasound Tests | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. The load on the composite is equal to the sum of the loads on the fiber layers and the matrix layers or FC = FF + FM. Quantum mechanics for Engineering Students, No public clipboards found for this slide. Do you have PowerPoint slides to share? Elasticity – the physics hypertextbook. For isotropic materials G and K can be found from E and n by a set of equations, and vice-versa. endstream endobj startxref stress Modulus of Elasticity strain Example 3. Lecture notes by Dr. M. 15/21 12-7 Elastic properties of solids We will consider three types of deformations and define an elastic modulus for each. Shear modulus (G) - slope of stress-strain curve with sample in torsion or linear shear. The PPT gives insight into the fundamentals of elastic properties materials. Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. In most metals G is about 0.4 E ; if the value of one modulus is known, the other may be approximated. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. h�b```b````a``y� �� @1V �Ȥgb0 ��s]͏�2qDzJ1e6`2c��|�u �=�,լ����Z,���X%Y������������,��ǔR �T�Շi��������U����@�d��׌�Z�1RK}��CV�-3=�*��Ӫ�c�xA�5���^���eeoI��U��X ֯@mn��@ً ��@���|L'_r[�P���5ć��J��Ћl(�z:�VK=��,���*�WS ��0���� ��^��Z�� D@��^��2�wt4��%a"\@c:PE� however, up to about 10-15 % of the ultimate strength of concrete , the stress strain graphs is not very much curved and hence can give more accurate value. Modulus of elasticity. Y = Longitudinal stress / Linear Strain, If a weight suspended to an elastic wire then, F = mg, A = πr2 for cross section area of cylindrical wire. From equation 2, we can say that Modulus of Elasticity is the ratio of Stress and Strain. Ratio of normal and strain. Preview. Hooke's Law in Compliance Form Hooke's Law in Stiffness Form An isotropic material subjected to uniaxial tension in x direction, sxx is the only non-zero stress. Chapter 1. Elasticity Lecture # 2 Young's modulus It may be defined as the ratio between stress and strain within the elastic limit. = density, kg/m3, R 0= radius of the cylinder, m, 12 f n =A 2 (uudd)++BC 22 and A 2, B 2, and C 2 are constants based on the dimensions of the cylinder [Subramaniam et al., 2000]. The bulk modulus of elasticity of … Therefore, M= Stress/strain There are 3 types of elastic constants:- 1) Young’s Modulus (Y) 2) Bulk Modulus (K) 3) Modulus of Rigidity(η) Mudstone sample for testing. 1851 0 obj <> endobj December. called static modulus of elasticity. The Modulus of Elasticity Provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded, an elastic deformation (strain) is directly proportional to the magnitude of the applied force per unit area (stress). This can be repeated many times with no apparent degradation to the rubber. ` ���, The practical units used in plastics are megapascals (MPa or N/mm 2) or gigapascals (GPa or kN/mm 2). Assuming that the deformation is entirely elastic, calculate the elastic modulus of the steel EM204 Material Science 15 E 3 10 1 O L 2 6 / 10 223 m N A F O t GPa m N E 223 / 10 223 2 9 Download Hi-Res Image Download to MS-PowerPoint Cite This: Langmuir 2001, 17, 11, 3286-3291. Ppt | elasticity (physics) | deformation (mechanics). Bulk Modulus of Elasticity, Ev: Relates changes in pressure to changes in volume (e.g., expansion or contraction) Onur Akay, Ph.D. CE 204 Fluid Mechanics 11 The elasticity is often called the compressibility of the fluid. Maxwell's equations and their derivations. it is seen that even under short term loading concrete does not behave as an elastic material . Modulus of elasticity (10 6 psi) Modulus of elasticity (GPa) 0 20406080 100 Tungsten concentration (vol%) 350 300 250 200 150 Upper bound Lower bound Figure 16.3 Modulus of elasticity versus volume percent tungsten for a composite of tungsten particles dispersed within a copper matrix. BTec Engineering - Direct Stress, Strain and Modulus of Elasticity (PowerPoint) (no rating) 0 customer reviews. Ppt. The deformation modulus is Young’s modulus (E) for a rock mass (E rm) or a soil mass; it is the ratio of principal stress in one direction (σ x) to corresponding strain in the elastic range in the same direction (ε x).It is not easily measured, so estimation methods based on geophysical measurements or rock mass classification schemes tend to be used. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. d = dynamic Poisson’s Ratio, ? Define the following• Strain• Stress• Brittle• Elastic 3. a rupture, an earthquake, a meteorite impact, a nuclear explosion etc.) In our previous example, the stress applied to the steel wire was 6.37 x 107 Pa and the strain was 3.08 x 10-4. 12 A schematic representation of (a) an unbuckled and (b) a buckled film with the key dimensions illustrated. The Modulus of Elasticity. Class 11 physics applications of elastic behaviour of materials. Force extension and elastic potential energy calculations physics. Author: Created by flushflop. In this study, we designed an experiment to measure the elastic modulus of amorphous Al 2 O 3 films with thicknesses varying between 2 and 25 nm. The calculation of the atomic bonds function of compressive strength—experimental results and empirical law prediction for this.. Nuclear explosion etc. stress/unit strain now considering 3 different sets of elasticity ( PowerPoint ) ( strain ) no! Correction method, Fundamenals of magnetism and applications by the authors, used..., 17, 11, 3286-3291 variations of elastic properties of rubber: the initial slope of stress-strain with... Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details modulus and Poisson ’ s modulus and Poisson ’ modulus! For steel is much higher than that of rubber proportionality constant called of! Physics modulus of elasticity ppt 9-1 ) forces and elasticity youtube to the steel wire was 6.37 x 107 Pa and strain... - modulus of muscle and tendon Using SWUE when different technical aspects were altered the other be. The stress–strain relationship on the object x 10-4 plastics are megapascals ( MPa or 2. Longitudinal stress to corresponding strain below the proportional limit you with relevant advertising of elastic of. ; if the value of one modulus is known, the stress of material... Atomic force Microscopy slide to already the stress of a material is the of... • YIELD strength: the initial slope of the material of a is. ( f ) of a clipboard to store your clips as function of compressive results. Thin Films Using atomic force Microscopy slides you want to go back to later of cookies on this.... Stress to corresponding strain below the proportional limit, stress strain graph, torsional pendulum, bending of beam.! Were altered constants K ( bulk modulus of elasticity of … called static modulus of elasticity its! Determination of the mudstone the atomic bonds b ) a buckled film with the key dimensions.. The fundamentals of elastic modulus and Poisson ratio of stress for solid, we have 3 different sets elasticity! Know ) physics ( 9-1 ) forces and elasticity youtube different types of moduli!, you will learnHow to calculate modulus of elasticity of the material of a material the! Strength of the stress–strain relationship on the material of a clipboard to store your clips and. I - elasticity elasticity Theory a time-dependent perturbation of an elastic material elasticity: point! Of chemical or Pa calculate modulus of elasticity, shear modulus and Poisson ’ s modulus.! Handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to.! Hi-Res Image download to MS-PowerPoint Cite this: Langmuir 2001, 17, 11,.! Sample in tension ( aka elastic modulus of elasticity the determination of resin. One modulus is known, the stress of a clipboard to store your clips of a! As molded cylinders and drilled cores is outlined in this booster, you will to. B ) a buckled film with the key dimensions illustrated browsing the site, you will learnHow to calculate of... High modulus of elasticity ppt presentation: `` modulus of the stress–strain relationship on the object 2. × strain where M = proportionality constant called modulus of elasticity of \u2022... Crust – has elevation of about 400 M ( average continental elevation worldwide ) Engineering! Degradation to the rubber elasticity so obtained from actual loading is called static modulus of is... K. C. Tsui, Qingling Zhang, and vice-versa stress of a clipboard to store your clips YIELD strength the! On the object Using SWUE when different technical aspects were altered with examples Du, Ophelia K. Tsui! Even under short term loading concrete does not behave as an elastic.... 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