To apply an external voltage, we usually connect 2 metallic contacts at the two ends of the pn junction (known as terminals); one on the p-side and other on the n-side. In Electromagnetic relays  operating current flows through the coil. The diode starts conducting at 0.7 volts and current through the diode increases linearly with increase in voltage. Figure illustrates what happens as the forward-bias voltage is increased positively from 0 V. The resistor is used to limit the forward current to a value that will not overheat the diode and cause damage. When the forward-bias voltage is increased to a value where the voltage across the diode reaches approximately 0.7 V (barrier potential), the forward current begins to increase rapidly, as illustrated in Figure (b). for eachelectron hole combination that take place near the junction a covalent bond breaks in the p section near the +ve pole of the battery how it is formed? 2.Reverse Bias. At Zener breakdown voltage the current starts flowing in the reverse direction. Lets just note the readings  of voltmeter and ammeter each time we adjust the battery (in steps of 0.1 volts). In that case, 1 volt will be dropped across the wires with the help of a very large current. We know the p-side of diode is connected to positive terminal and n-side of diode is connected to negative terminal of battery. keep in mind we are talking about a variable power source), an ammeter (in milli ampere range) and a voltmeter. Keep in mind that the reverse current below breakdown remains extremely small and can usually be neglected. As you can see in Figure (a), the forward current increases very little until the forward voltage across the pn junction reaches approximately 0.7 V at the knee of the curve.After this point, the forward voltage remains nearly constant at approximately 0.7 V, but IF increases rapidly. Reverse diode values are highlighted in green in Table 1. It is acting as normal diode while forward biasing. 0. The forward-bias and the reverse-bias properties of the p–n junction imply that it can be used as a diode. When the applied bias voltage is increased to a value where the reverse voltage across the diode (VR) reaches the breakdown value (VBR), the reverse current begins to increase rapidly. So the net “diffusion current” is zero! In forward bias if battery voltage is 2v , drop across si diode cant be more than 1v i.e. Circuit Graph. The reason for this is, in forward bias we apply voltage in a direction opposite to that of barrier potential. Similarly holes from p-side gets pushed towards the n-side junction. Learning anything is really fun when we question it. The basic difference between a forward bias and reverse bias is in the direction of applying external voltage. so please help me. The simplest approximation to make is to represent the diode as a device that allows no current through -- that is, it acts as an open circuit -- under reverse bias, and allows an unlimited amount of current through -- a closed circuit -- under forward bias. You just need to take a battery whose values can be varied from (o to V volts), connect its positive terminal to the p-side of PN junction diode and then connect the negative terminal of the battery to the n-side of the PN junction diode. Characteristics of PN junction diode is a graph between the voltage applied across its terminals and the current that flows through it. The ideal diode, therefore, is a semiconductor device that is not a switch, but functions as a perfect, intelligent switch which knows when to shut off and turn on based on the voltage applied to its junctions. The diode reverse voltage (VR) increases to the left along the horizontal axis, and the reverse current (IR) increases downward along the vertical axis. The operating point of the circuit is found from the intersection of these two curves. In a Silicon diode, the “barrier width” is higher than a Germanium diode. In chapter 1, we have seen that  net current inside a pn junction is zero. The “ideal diode” equation is a good approximation of the diode … Now this is what we call “characteristics of a pn junction diode” or the “behavior of diode under forward bias”. I mean, even considering the current for Vd near zero negligible, with Vd~0.60V there is current. During forward bias, the diode conducts current with increase in voltage. So let’s begin. Hope you got the answer! Reverse Bias – The voltage potential is connected negative, (-ve) to the P-type material and positive, (+ve) to the N-type material across the diode which has the effect of Increasing the PN junction diode’s width. The process of applying an external voltage is called as “biasing”. Record the results in Table 1. This curve shows that the Zener diode, when connected in forwarding bias, behaves like an ordinary diode. As the applied voltage increases from 0 volts to 0.7 volts, the depletion region width reduces from ‘W’ to zero. For a forward-biased diode, as temperature is increased, the forward current increases for a given value of forward voltage. Take a graph sheet and divide it into 4 equal parts. Under the Reverse biased condition, the opposition offered by the diode to the reverse current is known as Reverse Resistance.Ideally, the reverse resistance of a diode is considered to be infinite. I have never seen a website this successful in explanation! …….. As width of depletion region increases, it results in increasing the electric field strength.Why? So one thing is clear, we are applying external voltage in the same direction of barrier potential. Views. But at a certain reverse voltage p-n junction breaks in conduction. If you like to read the story, follow here:- Story behind Invention & Discovery of PN Junction. Point B corresponds to Figure (a) where the forward voltage is less than the barrier potential of 0.7 V. Point C corresponds to Figure (a) where the forward voltage approximately equals the barrier potential. The vertical reverse current line in this graph has current values expressed in microamperes. Why internal electric field generate after diffusion process in pn junction. 32. If the reverse current exceeds this maximum rating, the diode will get damaged. diode worked on ac voltage but it will give output is DC why because ac has two half cycles in that case,it will conduct only positive half cycle….do not allow -ve cycles…, The junction information is clearly understand so nice of it thanx. If depletion region’s width indicates the area covered by defused electrons/holes then read further. approximation of junction diode behavior in forward and reverse bias: 0 7 if i 0 (forward bias) D 0 if 0 (reverse bias) D DDZK v . I really appreciate. m a net qualified scientist, Thank you Pintu It was very nice words . Thanks Admin. In general, this means that reverse current remains constant over a large part of reverse voltage. This simply means, current will pass through the pn junction only if we apply an external voltage higher than the “barrier potential” of pn junction. We start from o volts, then slowly move 0.1 volts, 0.2 volts and so on till 10 volts. When a diode is reverse biased, it conducts Reverse current that is usually quite small. Precautions Testing a diode with a digital multimeter in two ways, diode testing portion, and ohmmeter. Fig : Temperature effect on the diode V-I characteristic. In this region, a small reverse current flows through the diode. The 1 mA and 1 mA marks on the vertical axis are given as a basis for a relative comparison of the current scales. I really got something from it…. Now to study its characteristics (change in current with applied voltage), we need to repeat all those steps again. For reverse-bias Plot a graph between reverse-bias voltage V R (column 2) and reverse current I R (column 3) taking V R along X-axis and I R along Y-axis. But sir what is Zener effect.and avalenche effect.? From this data what you can infer ? We know, as electrons and holes are pulled away from junction, they dont get diffused each other across the junction. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Now all we need to do is understand how the pn junction diode behaves when we increase the voltage levels from 0 to say 10 volts or 100 volts. If you could clarify that for me I would be glad. Three points A, B, and C are shown on the curve in Figure (a). From 0.7 volts and up, the diode start conducting and the current through diode increases linearly with increase in voltage of battery. So the electrons in n-side gets pushed towards the junction (by force of repulsion) and the holes in p-side gets pushed towards the junction. Thanks. 6. Forward Bias and Reverse Bias. This depletion region has a predefined width, say W. This width will vary for a Silicon diode and a Germanium diode. With 0 V across the diode, there is no forward current. The Dynamic or AC Forward Resistance is represented as shown below: The value of the forward resistance of a crystal diode is very small, ranging from 1 to 25 Ohms.. As you gradually increase the forward-bias voltage, the forward current and the voltage across the diode gradually increase, as shown in Figure (a). Why should we reverse bias a pn diode ? By reverse biasing, we mean, applying an external voltage which is opposite in direction to forward bias. (For a silicon diode – barrier potential is 0.7 volts where as for a Germanium diode barrier potential is low ~ 0.3 volts), What we are going to do is, vary the voltage across diode by adjusting the battery. This drift is caused by the electric field generated by depletion region. Forward biasing a pn junction diode is very simple. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'circuitstoday_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_3',122,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'circuitstoday_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_4',122,'0','1']));To get an answer to all these questions, lets first try to understand the characteristics of a PN junction. phani18. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'circuitstoday_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_18',114,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'circuitstoday_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_19',114,'0','1'])); Thickness of diplition layer depend on which factor? 0. Typically, a silicon diode has a VF around 0.7V and a germanium-based diode has around 0.3V. The width highly depends on the type of semiconductor used to make pn junction, the level of doping etc. If you plot the results of reverse-bias measurements on a graph, you get the V-I characteristic curve for a reverse biased diode. For each pn junction diode, there will be a maximum net current that it can withstand. Only if we overcome this “barrier potential” by applying an external voltage to the pn junction, we would be able to make it conducting. A diode curve tracer uses an oscilloscope for VI characteristics graph. The “diode” almost behaves like a shorted wire & hence current flows through it easily. The reason is difference in barrier potential for a diode made from Germanium and Silicon. As we know, forward bias produces current through a diode and reverse bias essentially prevents current, except for a negligible reverse current. why the battery in reverse bias is greater than in forward bias. And in reverse bias condition the depletion region increases instead of decreasing. Point A corresponds to a zero-bias condition. What really happens inside the diode during the forward bias ? From the graph find out the Dynamic Reverse Bias. What is zener effect and avalanche effect.? A typical rectifier diode (the most widely used type) has a breakdown voltage of greater than 50 V. Some specialized diodes have a breakdown voltage that is only 5 V. Combine the curves for both forward bias and reverse bias, and you have the complete V-I characteristic curve for a diode, as shown in Below Figure. I am clearly understood to read it……. Finally after taking the readings, just plot a graph with voltmeter readings on X-axis and corresponding Ammeter readings on Y axis. As I see it, we just consider 0.7V as a practival value for a conducting diode, where any variation of the current will cause a small variation on Vd, keeping it around the same 0.7V. hoping that 2 give more information about electronics. Here, the characteristics is the graph where the voltage is plotted on the X-Axis and the Current on the Y-Axis. Reverse bias prevents current as long as the reverse-bias voltage does not equal or exceed the breakdown voltage of the junction. For this crystal clear explanation….. Vd is 0.7V for silicon and 0.3V for … In this article, we learn about PN junction diode characteristics in detail – like how to bias a PN junction (Forward & Reverse bias methods), behavior of PN junction during forward & reverse bias setups, how to plot the VI characteristics, what is reverse breakdown and many other essential concepts regarding a PN junction diode. Aheins1's interactive graph and data of "Zener Diode I vs V Reverse Bias Curve" is a scatter chart, showing Voltage (Diode) reverse; with Current Reverse in the x-axis and Voltage (Diode) reverse … yes, its very great answer that i want. There are two ways in which we can bias a pn junction diode. iVv ≈> ≈−<< Each of the three expressions examined in this handout can be used to describe the behavior of junction diodes in forward and/or reverse bias. Zero Bias – No external voltage potential is applied to the PN junction diode. The reverse bias region exists between zero current and breakdown. Reverse bias: This is the "off" mode of the diode, where the voltage is less than V F but greater than -V BR. It’s clearly explaind and easy to understand. It is very useful There is very little reverse current (usually mA or nA) until the reverse voltage across the diode reaches approximately the breakdown value (VBR) at the knee of the curve. You can’t imagine how much this helped me! This completes the reverse bias circuit for pn junction diode. If applied external voltage is V and barrier potential is Vx , then total voltage across the pn junction will be V+Vx. Copy. Got a clearer explanation that i did in class… Kudos. Calculate the reverse current (I R) for each power supply value using ohm’s law. This is called as “reverse current” and this particular value of applied voltage, where reverse current through diode increases suddenly is known as “break down voltage“. Si diode in reverse biased conditions: Graph (Instructions): 1. thanx ! When a reverse-bias voltage is applied across a diode, there is only an extremely small reverse current (IR) through the pn junction. The left side is the reverse voltage region and the diode is in reverse biased. When forward biased, the ideal diode acts like a closed switch: When reverse biased, the ideal diode acts like an open switch. So these are our questions. They are widely used in rectifier circuits. it is so helpful and it clears all the confusion…….plz answer meone question thatis why in CB mode the emitter current increases with increase of V(CB), this is a exellent article……….sir plz letme know about base width modulation, It is very short notes The diode reverse voltage (VR) increases to the left along the horizontal axis, and the reverse current (IR) increases downward along the vertical axis. Open Circuit. The right side of this graph is forward voltage region and a diode is in forward biased. In the reverse bias the voltage increases in the reverse direction across the p-n junction, but no current due to the majority carriers, only a minimal leakage current flows. At break down, what happens really is that the diode gets damaged. P and N. PN junction is a junction formed between P and N types of semiconductors. This means depletion region vanishes at 0.7 volts of applied voltage. In forward bias condition external electric field ( produced by battery) will be opposite to the internal electric field ( produced depletion barrier ). Why the forward voltage values are almost constant for source voltage from 5V to 1V during forward-biased? Circuit diagrams and model graph Observation and readings. You say that the PN junction only starts to conduct current after the voltage aplied on the diode (Vd) reaches 0.7V, the barrier potential as you call it, but all the graphics and equations shows us that there is current through the diode for values of Vd smaller than 0,7V. From the analysis of both forward bias and reverse bias, we can arrive at one fact – a pn junction diode conducts current only in one direction – i.e during forward bias. Forward Bias. At breakdown voltage, the current through diode shoots rapidly. 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