Insecticide resistance in soybean aphid has emerged as a new challenge to soybean production. 2012). Ragsdale, D. W., D. A. Landis, J. Brodeur, G. E. Heimpel, and N. Desneux. Wu, Z., D. Schenk-Hamlin, W. Zhan, D. W. Ragsdale, and G. E. Heimpel. 2009), spirotetramat (Group 23) (Bahlai et al. It is used in the UK to control a range of pests in both arable and livestock farming, in homes and gardens, and in public and commercial buildings. It is low toxicity to humans and animals. (2017) provided the first evidence for soybean aphid resistance to insecticides coupled with reports of these insecticides failing to control the pest in North America. In the long term, soybean aphid management must move beyond insecticide-based management toward true integrated pest management incorporating multiple, proactive tactics. Table 1 lists the natural and conventional contact insecticides for the â¦ 2017) has had chronically high soybean aphid populations (i.e., exceeding the economic threshold) every year, except 2003. For example, host-plant resistance is the cornerstone for many pest management programs (Smith 2005), but is largely lacking in soybean aphid management. 2012b, Clifton et al. 2013). McCarville, M. T., M. O’Neal, G. L. Tylka, C. Kanobe, and G. C. MacIntosh. After soybean aphid populations reach the economic threshold, a single application of a foliar insecticide is usually sufficient for soybean aphid management (Hodgson et al. To minimize drift, which could result in an effectively reduced rate of insecticide in the field, only spray under favorable environmental conditions (e.g., wind speeds less than 10 miles per hour, no air temperature inversions). 2011, Tilmon et al. This graphic was modified from Hodgson and Koch (2018). The biology, impacts, and management of soybean aphid have been well reviewed (Ragsdale et al. 2011, Hodgson et al. Knodel, J. J., P. Beauzay, M. Boetel, and T. Prochaska. 3). Insecticide options are given as examples only and do not imply endorsement of one insecticide versus another nor discrimination against any insecticide not mentioned by the authors or the universities. Second, as indicated earlier, there are a limited number of insecticide groups available for soybean aphid management (Table 1). In China, laboratory experiments exposing soybean aphid to lambda-cyhalothrin for 40 generations resulted in the development of 76-fold resistance to that insecticide and cross resistance to other pyrethroids (i.e., cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, cyfluthrin, and bifenthrin), organophosphates (i.e., chlorpyrifos and acephate), and a carbamate (i.e., carbofuran) (Xi et al. We thank Anthony Hanson and three anonymous reviewers for providing critical reviews of an earlier version of this paper and Courtney Garrison for summary of the USDA data. The LC5 of beta-cypermethrin drove A.Â solani migrating from soybean leaves to stems independently of interspecific competition. Furthermore, depending on factors such as relative efficacy, durations of residual activity, and levels of cross resistance, use of some mixtures could provide additional selection pressure for further development of insecticide resistance (IRAC 2012). Publication IPM 0060, North Central Soybean Research Program, Ankeny, IA, Enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for soybean aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in soybean, Field validation of speed scouting for soybean aphid, Management recommendations for soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States, Value of neonicotinoid seed treatments to US soybean farmers, Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC), General Principles of Insecticide Resistance Management from IRAC, IRAC International Insecticide Mixture Statement, IRAC Mode of Action Classification Scheme, 2018 field crop insect management guide. However, pyrethroid-containing mixtures should generally be avoided for use against pyrethroid-resistant populations (IRAC 2012) (Fig. 3). Aphids, like other insects, employ several different mechanisms (i.e., metabolic resistance mediated by monooxygenases, esterases, and glutathione S-transferases; target site insensitivity such as knock down resistance (kdr) and super-kdr; and reduced cuticular penetration) to overcome pyrethroid insecticides (Liu 2012). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, Copyright © 2021 Entomological Society of America. Aphids from these three populations were less sensitive to alpha-cypermethrin compared with KAT (Figure 3). It is used to control chewing, sucking, and flying insects such as beetles, aphids, and other Lepidoptera. Insecticide use (i.e., percent of planted acres treated with insecticide) (top figure) and crop scouting for insects and mites (i.e., percent of planted acres scouted) (bottom figure) in soybean in the Midwestern Region of the United States. Krupke, C. H., A. M.Alford, E. M.Cullen, E. W.Hodgson, J. J.Knodel, B.McCornack, B. D.Potter, M. I.Spigler, K.Tilmon, and K. Welch. 2007). Data from NASS (2018); data do not include seed-applied insecticides (Douglas and Tooker 2015). This pattern of greater pest pressure in Minnesota and neighboring states is further evidenced by data from NASS (2018). and B.D.P., unpublished data). Monitor the trees for mites when the weather is hot and dry and after â¦ Pyrethroid-containing mixtures may provide adequate control of some pyrethroid-resistant populations of soybean aphid (IRAC 2012, R.L.K. The amount of cypermethrin â¦ Alternatively, ‘Speed Scouting’ can be used as a more efficient approach to scouting and making treatment decisions (Hodgson et al. Aphis glycines and A.Â solani facilitated each other's colonization on the soybean. Hodgson, E. W., B. P. McCornack, K. A. Koch, D. W. Ragsdale, K. D. Johnson, M. E. O’Neal, E. M. Cullen, H. J. Kraiss, C. D. DiFonzo, M. Jewett, et al. Thrips are extremely minute insects, usually less than 1/16 inch when full-grown. 2012), which has increased selection pressure for these particular groups. Aphids are tiny pear-shaped, soft-bodied insects that suck the juices out of leaves, stems and tender plantsâ though some species attack lettuce roots and the woody parts of apple tree roots and limbs. This killer soap solution contains â¦ Alves, T. M., I. V. MacRae, and R. L. Koch. 2004, Hodgson et al. 2According to Insecticide Resistance Action Committtee (IRAC 2018). Resistance can be defined as a ‘genetically based decrease in susceptibility to a pesticide’ and more than 500 species of arthropods have developed resistance to insecticides (Tabashnik et al. However, many of these natural enemies are also adversely affected by broad-spectrum insecticides (e.g., organophosphates and pyrethroids) currently used to manage soybean aphid. 2017). A sublethal concentration of beta-cypermethrin (LC5 for A.Â glycines) stimulated the reproduction of A.Â glycines but it did not impact the fecundity of A.Â solani. Once aphid populations become established in a crop, higher rates of insecticides are required to reduce high aphid populations and to minimise their feeding damage. Hill, J. H., R. Alleman, D. B. Hogg, and C. R. Grau. This area of Minnesota also receives significant numbers of pyrethroid insecticide applications to canning crops, which are often adjacent to soybean. 2015). 2017). zeta-cypermethrin) 5.0 to 11.75 fl oz : Tombstone  (cyfluthrin) 1.8 to 2.4 fl oz (0.028 to 0.038 fl oz/A) Greenbug: Planting Time : Lime-green aphid with darker green stripe down back. 2015). We provide an overview of factors that may have contributed to development of insecticide resistance in soybean aphid and recommendations for management of potentially resistant soybean aphid populations. If fields were planted with neonicotinoid-treated seed, avoid application of neonicotinoid-containing products (e.g., options D and E) for the first foliar application to the field. Several factors related to soybean aphid infestations and management likely contributed to the development of pyrethroid resistance in this pest in the Upper Midwest of the United States. 2012) with varying levels of insecticide susceptibility colonizing the fields. The most popular among gardeners means to control aphids on apple trees are the following drugs: Kinmiks is an insecticide that contains the main active ingredient beta-cypermethrin (from the group of pyrethroids, it is produced artificially), it affects both adult aphids â¦ Koch, K., B. D. Potter and D. W. Ragsdale. Insecticide use on soybean in North America has increased dramatically in response to this pest (Ragsdale et al. Reproduction of A.Â glycines was more likely inhibited by the interspecific interactions compared to A.Â solani. The LC5 of beta-cypermethrin accelerated the reproductive inhibition. Implementation of user-friendly scouting tools and other management tactics may decrease unnecessary exposure of the pest to insecticides and, in turn, reduce further development of insecticide resistance. If the insecticide application fails to control the pest population, try to rule out other potential causes for an insecticide failure, such as incorrect insecticide rate or application method, unfavorable environmental conditions, or recolonization of a treated field by winged soybean aphids. Therefore, we caution against the use of neonicotinoid-containing insecticides for a first foliar application to such fields (Fig. A., J. Menger-Anderson, C. Silverstein, B. D. Potter, I. V. MacRae, E. W. Hodgson, and R. L. Koch. Due to the mobility of winged soybean aphids (Schmidt et al. Reliance on insecticide-based management of insect pests often results in development of insecticide resistance (Pedigo and Rice 2009). Thrips. South Dakota State University Extension, Research on resistance of soybean aphid (, The soybean aphid in China: a historical review, Elevated expression of esterase and cytochrome P450 are related with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and lead to cross resistance in, Spray toxicity and risk potential of 42 commonly used formulations of row crop pesticides to adult honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). Hanson, A. 2001) and potential facilitation of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, infestations (McCarville et al. 2007). 2012), the risk of insecticide-resistant populations of soybean aphid spreading to soybean fields in other soybean producing regions is high. 2017). 2). 2007). If pyrethroid-resistance is suspected in an aphid population, products containing insecticides other than pyrethroids should be considered. Agric. Tips of legs, â¦ Cypermethrin is bio-degradable in soil and plants, but its effects can extend for weeks when applied to indoor inert surfaces. A popular insecticide active ingredient that is used to eliminate a broad range of common household bugs is a synthetic pyrethroid known as Cypermethrin. If more than one treatment is needed in the same growing season, alternate to a different insecticide group number. Beta-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, has a broad insecticide spectrum and is considered effective for aphid control, while its residual concentrations may have sublethal effects â¦ Zeta-cypermethrin â¦ 2012). 3). Insecticides from three insecticide groups are available in foliar formulations for soybean aphid management (IRAC 2018, Knodel et al.